Regulation of CRISPR genetic editing

This page is a collection of resources around the regulation of CRISPR genetic editing. Please scroll below to find links to pieces of legislation and policies, resources, and academic papers. I will add further resources and commentary over time.

Last updates:

(Last update 1 July 2020)

Legislation and policies

Committees and agencies


Academic journals

The CRISPR Journal

Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Special issue on CRISPR (Winter 2020)

Nature, Adopt a moratorium on heritable genome editing (March 2019)

The Harvard Gazette, Perspectives on gene editing (January 2019)

Nature, First CRISPR babies: six questions that remain, How the genome-edited babies revelation will affect research, Genome-edited baby claim provokes international outcry (November 2018)

The Lancet, Genome editing: science, ethics, and public engagement (August 2017)

Academic papers on regulation of CRISPR


Arguedas-Ramírez, G. (2020). Ethics and Global Governance of Human Germline Genome Editing: The Problem of Techno-Scientific Colonialist Paternalism. The CRISPR Journal3(2), 83-88.

van Beers, B. C. (2020). Rewriting the human genome, rewriting human rights law? Human rights, human dignity, and human germline modification in the CRISPR era. Journal of Law and the Biosciences. (online 9/6/2020)

Bertka, C. M. (2020). The CRISPR Apple on the Tree of Knowledge Conference Highlights: CRISPR in Science, Ethics, and Religion. Zygon55(2), 444-458.

Doxzen, K., & Halpern, J. (2020). Focusing on Human Rights: a framework for CRISPR germline genome editing ethics and regulation. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine63(1), 44-53.

Garland-Thomson, R. (2020). How We Got to CRISPR: The Dilemma of Being Human. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine63(1), 28-43.

Isa, N. M., Zulkifli, N. A., & Man, S. (2020). Islamic perspectives on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated human germline gene editing: a preliminary discussion. Science and Engineering Ethics26(1), 309-323.

Jiang, L. (2020). Commercialization of the gene-edited crop and morality: challenges from the liberal patent law and the strict GMO law in the EU. New Genetics and Society39(2), 191-218.

Johnston, J. (2020). Shaping the CRISPR Gene-Editing Debate: Questions About Enhancement and Germline Modification. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine63(1), 141-154.

Kleiderman, E., & Stedman, I. N. K. (2019). Human germline genome editing is illegal in Canada, but could it be desirable for some members of the rare disease community?. Journal of community genetics, 1-10.

Martin, P., Morrison, M., Turkmendag, I., Nerlich, B., McMahon, A., de Saille, S., & Bartlett, A. (2020). Genome editing: the dynamics of continuity, convergence, and change in the engineering of life. New Genetics and Society39(2), 219-242.

Nestor, M. W., & Wilson, R. L. (2020). Beyond Mendelian genetics: anticipatory biomedical ethics and policy implications for the use of CRISPR together with gene drive in humans. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 1-12.

Padden, C., & Humphries, J. (2020). Who Goes First? deaf people and CRISPR germline editing. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine63(1), 54-65.

Patrick, S. M. (2020). Can We Learn to Incentivize Morality?: A Discussion of Biotechnology on an International Level. Emory Int’l L. Rev.34, 859.

Safaei, M., Mobini, G. R., Abiri, A., & Shojaeian, A. (2020). Synthetic biology in various cellular and molecular fields: applications, limitations, and perspective. Molecular Biology Reports, 1-10.

Soni, S. (2020). CRISPR and the Law: A South African Perspective. The CRISPR Journal3(2), 81-82.

de Wit, M. M. (2020). Democratizing CRISPR? Stories, practices, and politics of science and governance on the agricultural gene editing frontier. Elem Sci Anth8(1).

Wollert, D. (2020). The Fascinating & Controversial New Science of CRISPR. The American Biology Teacher82(5), 279-288.


Martin-Laffon, J., Kuntz, M., & Ricroch, A. E. (2019). Worldwide CRISPR patent landscape shows strong geographical biases. Nature biotechnology37(6), 613-620.

Jorasch, P. (2020). Will the EU stay out of step with science and the rest of the world on plant breeding innovation?. Plant Cell Reports39(1), 163-167.

Blasimme, A. (2019). Why Include the Public in Genome Editing Governance Deliberation?. AMA Journal of Ethics21(12), 1065-1070.

Scott, C. T., & Selin, C. (2019). What to Expect When Expecting CRISPR Baby Number Four. The American Journal of Bioethics19(3), 7-9.

Alsaigh, T., Nicholson, L., & Topol, E. (2019). What Should Clinicians Do to Engage the Public About Gene Editing?. AMA Journal of Ethics21(12), 1089-1097.

Gumer, J. M. (2019). The wisdom of germline editing: an ethical analysis of the use of CRISPR-Cas9 to edit human embryos. The New Bioethics25(2), 137-152.

Braun, M., & Meacham, D. (2019). The trust game: CRISPR for human germline editing unsettles scientists and society. EMBO reports20(2), e47583.

Boggio, A., Knoppers, B. M., Almqvist, J., & Romano, C. P. (2019). The human right to science and the regulation of human germline engineering. The CRISPR Journal2(3), 134-142.

Halpern, J., O’Hara, S. E., Doxzen, K. W., Witkowsky, L. B., & Owen, A. L. (2019). Societal and Ethical Impacts of Germline Genome Editing: How Can We Secure Human Rights?. The CRISPR journal2(5), 293-298.

Wasmer, M. S. (2019). Roads forward for European GMO policy–uncertainties in wake of ECJ judgment have to be mitigated by regulatory reform. Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology7, 132.

Brokowski, C., & Adli, M. (2019). CRISPR ethics: moral considerations for applications of a powerful tool. Journal of molecular biology431(1), 88-101.

Lassoued, R., Macall, D. M., Smyth, S. J., Phillips, P. W., & Hesseln, H. (2019). Risk and safety considerations of genome edited crops: Expert opinion. Current Research in Biotechnology1, 11-21.

Kleiderman, E., & Ogbogu, U. (2019). Realigning gene editing with clinical research ethics: what the “CRISPR Twins” debacle means for Chinese and international research ethics governance. Accountability in research26(4), 257-264.

Van Eenennaam, A. L., Wells, K. D., & Murray, J. D. (2019). Proposed US regulation of gene-edited food animals is not fit for purpose. npj Science of Food3(1), 1-7.

Hashmi, F. (2019). Necessity or Vanity: Designer Babies, CRISPR, and the Future of Genetic Modifications. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management7(11).

Rufo, F., & Ficorilli, A. (2019). From Asilomar to Genome Editing: Research Ethics and Models of Decision. NanoEthics13(3), 223-232.

Feeney, O. (2019). Editing the gene editing debate: Reassessing the normative discussions on emerging genetic technologies. NanoEthics13(3), 233-243.

Greely, H. T. (2019). CRISPR’d babies: human germline genome editing in the ‘He Jiankui affair’. Journal of Law and the Biosciences6(1), 111-183.

Marcon, A., Master, Z., Ravitsky, V., & Caulfield, T. (2019). CRISPR in the North American popular press. Genetics in Medicine21(10), 2184-2189.

Morrison, M., & de Saille, S. (2019). CRISPR in context: towards a socially responsible debate on embryo editing. Palgrave Communications5(1), 1-9.

Brokowski, C., & Adli, M. (2019). CRISPR ethics: moral considerations for applications of a powerful tool. Journal of molecular biology431(1), 88-101.

Knoppers, B. M., & Kleiderman, E. (2019). “CRISPR babies”: What does this mean for science and Canada?. CMAJ191(4), E91-E92.

Sherkow, J. S. (2019). Controlling CRISPR Through Law: Legal Regimes as Precautionary Principles. The CRISPR journal2(5), 299-303.

Muller, M., Schneider, M., Salathé, M., & Vayena, E. (2019). Combining Crowdsourcing and Deep Learning to Assess Public Opinion on CRISPR-Cas9. BioRxiv, 802454.

Taylor, C., & Dewsbury, B. (2019). Barriers to inclusive deliberation and democratic governance of genetic technologies at the science-policy interface. Journal of Science Communication18(3), Y02.

Matthews, K. R., & Iltis, A. S. (2019). Are we ready to genetically modify a human embryo? Or is it too late to ask?. Accountability in research26(4), 265-270.

Peters, T. (2019). Are we closer to free market eugenics? The crispr controversy. Zygon®54(1), 7-13.

McConnell, S. C. (2019). An Exclusive Interview With CRISPR. AMA Journal of Ethics21(12), 1079-1088.

Bratlie, S., Halvorsen, K., Myskja, B. K., Mellegård, H., Bjorvatn, C., Frost, P., … & Malnes, R. S. (2019). A novel governance framework for GMO: A tiered, more flexible regulation for GMO s would help to stimulate innovation and public debate. EMBO reports20(5), e47812.

Conley, J. M. (2019). Introduction: A Lawyer’s Guide to CRISPR. North Carolina Law Review97(5), 1041.

Cunningham, A. (2018). A Cleaner, CRISPR Constitution: Germline Editing and Fundamental Rights. Wm. & Mary Bill Rts. J.27, 877.


Guerrini, C. J., Spencer, G. E., & Zettler, P. J. (2018). DIY CRISPR. NCL Rev.97, 1399.